Microbial metabolites as promising anti-inflammatory resources in biomedicine

Document Type : Review Paper

Authors

1 Department of Biology and Center of Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms, Faculty of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran.

Abstract

Numerous medical conditions, including cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and more recently, COVID-19, show close linkage to inflammation as a complex pathophysiological process. In this review, we present a comprehensive outlook on microbial-derived anti-inflammatory compounds as remarkable biomedicine drugs, focusing on their efficiency, mode of action, and limitations. Various structures of microbial anti-inflammatory compounds are introduced, including Macrolactin, Lipopeptides, Pyrrol, Quinoline, Alkaloids, Carbazole derivatives, Bicyclic depsipeptides, Flavomannin, etc. The inhibitory effects on IL-5, IL-13, ICAM-1, and PTP1B expression, PGE2 release, and increasing TGF-β production are only reported for microbial-derived anti-inflammatory compounds. According to previous studies, some species of Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Streptomyces, Salinispora, Micromonospora, Talaromyces, and Faecalibacterium are bacterial genera that can produce compounds with inhibitory effects on inflammation. Also, Penicillium, Pleosporales, Aspergillus, Eurotium, Ascomycota, Eurotium, Lasiodiplodia, and Graphostroma are fungal genera of fungal species with the ability to produce anti-inflammatory metabolites. Microbial-based approaches are among the main suggested natural resources that may be able to provide novel, applicable anti-inflammation drugs in the future. Furthermore, the efficiency of existing drugs could be modulated using these new microbial anti-inflammatory compounds. This will aid in the future development of novel bio-based medications to prevent and treat numerous debilitating inflammation-related diseases.

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