Guide for Authors

Subdivision - numbered sections 

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.


State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.


Materials and methods 
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.


Results and discussion

Results should be clear and concise in one section..  Discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.


Essential title page information 

Title.Concise and informative (max. 15 words). Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

Author names and affiliations

Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

Corresponding author.Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.

Present/permanent address.If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
The abstract should be max. 300 words in length.



Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research.


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.


Math formulae 

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Figure captions 

Ensure that each illustration has a caption.  Insert captions in appropriate places in the manuscript and put all figures in the first position of manuscript text.  A caption should comprise a brief title and a description of the illustration. 


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables must be placed consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. 


All the tables and figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals (Table 1. and Figure 1.).

Save line art such as charts, graphs, and illustrations in EPS or PDF format. Save photographic images in TIFF format. These should be at a resolution of at least 300 dpi at the final size. Save figures containing a combination of photographic images and text (eg annotated photographic images with text labels) as EPS or PDF. Any photographic images embedded within these should be at least 300 dpi. Perform a visual check of the quality of the generated image.



Citation in text 

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.


Reference style (APA format) in google scholar citation followed by DOI at the end 

Text: Indicate references using first author and the year of publication as the published papers.  
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list considering alphabet. 

Reference to a journal publication: 

[5] Richardson, J., Hanraads, R., & Lupton, R.A. (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. J. Food Chem., 163, 51–59.

Reference to a book: 
[2] Smith, J., & White, B. (2000). Novel Food Processing Technologies, 4th ed., Longman, New York, pp 12 – 34.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book: 

[3] Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B., Smith, R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp 281– 304.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book: 

[7] Smith, F., & Rotgers, H. (2012). The art of writing a scientific article.  In: Proceeding of the 4th Int. Cong. of Food. Tech. (pp. 123128), Praha, Czech Republic.

Reference to a patent: 

[9] Johnson, K.P. Process for Fabricating Parts from Particulate Material. U.S. Patent 4,765,950, August 23, 2011.

Reference to a website:

[10] CTAHR (College of Agricultural Resources, University of Rice). Tea (Camellia sinensis) a New Crop for Hawaii, 2007. URL . Accessed 24.02.12.

Reference to a dataset:

[dataset] [5] Oguro, S., Imahiro, K.S., Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1, 2015.